In [38]:

```
numbers = [2, 4, 6, 8]
print(numbers)
```

[2, 4, 6, 8]

In [12]:

```
names = ['Maria', 'Mario', 'Anna', 'Antonio']
print(names)
```

['Maria', 'Mario', 'Anna', 'Antonio']

`list`

¶```
names = ['Maria', 'Mario', 'Anna', 'Antonio']
```

What is the value assigned to `names`

?

In [13]:

```
type(names)
number = 1
type(number)
```

Out[13]:

int

A variable is a reference to a value.

A `list`

is a value that contains an ordered list of references to values.

**NOTES**

- Draw out the variables and the heap
- Show a single variable pointing to a value
- Show that a list is a
**value**on the heap that holds references to other values. - Show 2, 4, 6, 8 on the heap, with arrows from the list to these values

A `list`

serves as a collection of values.

What real-world scenarios could you represent with a list?

You can express a `list`

using square brackets `[`

and `]`

and commas `,`

In [10]:

```
[1, 2, 3, 4]
```

Out[10]:

[1, 2, 3, 4]

In [2]:

```
['dog', 'cat', 'horse']
```

Out[2]:

['dog', 'cat', 'horse']

`for ... in ...`

¶You can **iterate** over the values in a list using a `for`

loop.

In [15]:

```
numbers = [2, 4, 6, 8]
for number in numbers:
print(number)
for puppy in numbers:
print(puppy)
```

2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8

**NOTES**

- Draw out numbers (variables and heap)
- Draw out number - point it to the first value
- Show how
`number`

updates with each iteration - Point out the indentation, just like
`while`

blocks

`iteration.py`

¶**NOTES**

- Step through the code with a debugger
- Show how the list appears in the variables window
- Show how
`fruit`

updates with each pass - Show how we can change the name of
`fruit`

to something else

`.append(...)`

¶

: to put after, to place at the endappend

In [23]:

```
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
# bigger_numbers = []
for number in numbers:
bigger = number * 2
bigger_numbers.append(bigger)
print(numbers)
print(bigger_numbers)
```

**NOTES**

- before running the code:
- how many times will
`print`

be called?

- how many times will
`append`

is a function on the list, just like the`Bit`

functions`append`

takes one argument.- Show what happens when there is no argument (remove the reference to
`bigger`

)

- Show what happens when there is no argument (remove the reference to

`smaller_numbers.py`

¶This demonstrates the *mapping pattern*.

*Map* is a mathematical term that means going from one value to a corresponding value.

This is also referred to as the *transform pattern*.

**NOTES**

- Show how
`smaller_numbers`

grows with each iteration - Show how the new number always goes at the end of the list
- After walking through the code, advance the fragment and discuss the
*mapping pattern* - Draw out how the numbers mapped from original to halved

`add_seven.py`

¶You can pass lists to functions and return lists from functions.

**NOTES**

- Draw out variables and heap
- Show how
`numbers`

is updated to point to the list that`new_numbers`

points to

`only_odds.py`

¶This demonstrates the *filter pattern*.

A new collection is created with certain items filtered out.

**NOTES**

- Step through with debugger
- Show how numbers are added only if they are odd

`find_min.py`

¶This demonstrates the *selection pattern*.

A single item is selected from a collection.

**NOTES**

`is None`

: this is how you check if a variable points to`None`

- Step through in debugger
- Look at logic of
`if`

condition- See how the value of
`smallest`

updates only sometimes

- See how the value of

`len`

¶To get the length of a `list`

, use `len`

:

In [44]:

```
states_visited = ['UT', 'OR', 'WA', 'ID', 'CA',
'NV', 'AZ', 'WY', 'NB', 'SD',
'IA', 'OH', 'NY', 'NJ', 'MA',
'MD', 'VA', 'FL', 'HI', 'PA',
'IL', 'IN', 'MO']
print(len(states_visited))
```

23

`average.py`

¶This demonstrates the *accumulator pattern*.

`total`

accumulates the values in the collection.

**NOTES**

- Step through in debugger
- Show how total updates

`list`

- iteration,
`for ... in ...:`

`.append(...)`

- Passing lists to and returning lists from functions
*mapping pattern**filter pattern**selection pattern**accumulator pattern*